(PDF) Chapter 4 Definition and Sources of Hazardous Waste.ppt - DOKUMEN.TIPS (2023)

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Microsoft PowerPoint - Chapter 4 Definition and Sources ofHazardous Waste.ppt [Compatibility Mode]University of Jordan
2/9/2011 Dr. Mustafa Al Kuisi 2
Hazardous Waste • Is a waste material that has the potentialto
harm life forms and the environment. • Waste material that everyonewants picked
up but no one wants put down. • Hazardous material is not ahazardous waste
until it is no longer useful, or has been abandoned ordiscarded.
• Example: toxic chemical (benzene) is not a hazards waste until itbecomes part of waste stream from which it cannot be separated forreuse.
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• There is a difference between hazardous substance and a hazardouswaste.
• Solid waste: any discard material that is not specificallyexcluded by the regulation or excluded by granting of a specialvariance by the regulatory agency.
• Discarded material is considered abandoned, recycled, orinherently waste like.
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EPA Definition • The EPA considers a waste to be
hazardous if: 1. It process certain characteristics
(ignitibility, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity)
2. It is on a list of specific wastes that are determined by theEPA to be hazardous
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• According to the EPA, a solid waste will be considered hazardousif it meet any of the following four criteria:
1. It is a listed waste, i.e., the waste material is listed as ahazardous waste in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR 40 (CFR), part261. http://www.epa.gov/epahome/cfr40.htm
2. It is a characteristic waste, meaning that it exhibits any ofthe following characteristics, ignitibility, corrosivitiy,reactivity, or toxicity (ICRT)
3. It is a mixture containing both hazardous and non hazardouswaste.
4. It is not specifically excluded from regulation as a hazardouswaste. (Table 1)
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Excluded Hazardous Wastes
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• The second category of listed wastes includes those generated byspecific sources.
• These are designated by the letter K and come from variousindustrial materials and processes: metal processing, woodpreservation, petroleum products, acids and caustic, pesticiderelated chemicals.
• The third category of listed waste includes commercial chemicalproducts. These are designated by later P or U. The P wastes areacutely hazardous (contain chemicals that are fatal to human insmall doses) and are subjected to more stringent for emptycontainers and quantity limits
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• Example: 1 kg of acute hazardous waste; 1000 kg for nonacutehazardous waste.
• All P series wastes, F020-F023 and F026-F028 are acutelyhazardous.
• U series wastes are non acutely hazardous.
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• F- Series: include hazardous wastes from nonspecific sources(e.g. halogenated or nonhalogenated solvents, cyanide solution fromplating batches. These are commonly produced from manufacturing andindustrial processes.
• K – Series: from specific source • P Seies:
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Characteristic of Ignitibility Wastes exhibit this characteristicif… Ignitibility relates to the potential of waste material tocause fire during storage, disposal, or transported.
It is a liquid(other than an aqueous solution containing less than24% alcohol, and has a flash point less than 140 degrees f. It isnot a liquid and is capable under STP of causing a fire throughfriction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous changes and, whenignited burns so violently that it creates a hazard. It is aignitable compressed gas as defined in 49 CFR 173.300. It is anoxidizer as defined in 49 CFR 173.151. Wastes that exhibit thecharacteristic of ignitability have the EPA waste code ofDOO1.
2/9/2011 Dr. Mustafa Al Kuisi 11
Characteristic of corrosivity Wastes exhibit this characteristicif…
It is a liquid and has a pH less than or equal to 2 or greater thanor equal to 12.5.
It is a liquid and corrodes steel(SAE 1020) at a rate greater than0.25 inches per year at 130 degrees f.
Wastes that exhibit the characteristic of corrosivitiy have the EPAwaste code D002.
pH range of corrosivity
Characteristic of reactivity
Wastes exhibit this characteristic if…
It is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent changewithout detonation. It reacts violently with water. It formsexplosive mixtures with water. When mixed with water, it generatestoxic gasses, fumes, or vapors. It is a cyanide or sulfide bearingwaste, which when exposed to corrosive conditions, can generatetoxic gasses, fumes, or vapors.
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Reactivity (continued)
It is readily capable of detonation or explosive reaction if it issubjected to a strong initiating source or if heated underconfinement.
It is a forbidden explosive as defined in 49 CFR 173.51, or a ClassA explosive as defined in 49 CFR 173.53, or a class B explosive asdefined in 49 CFR 173.88.
Wastes that exhibit the reactivity characteristic have the EPAwaste code D003.
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Toxicity Characteristic
Waste exhibits this characteristic if…
A sample of the waste, using the Toxicity Characteristic LeachingProcedure, the extract from a representative sample of the wastecontains any of the contaminants listed in table I at theconcentration equal to or greater than the respective value givenin the table. Wastes exhibiting the toxicity characteristic havethe waste codes D004-D043.
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Is the waste
Blood & Blood Products or Sharps
Animal Waste (carcasses, body parts)
Is the Waste:
Reactive (water, air, explosive)
Toxic (heavy metals, poisons)
Does it have any other hazardous
Dispose of in proper solid waste stream (broken glassware,trash),call EHO with any questions.
Is the waste:
pages 61-71 HWMM
Hazardous Waste Identification
Generators are required to Accurately determine if the wastes theygenerate are hazardous.
1. Determine if waste is excluded.
2. Determine if the waste is listed.
3. If waste is not listed, test it or apply knowledge of the hazardcharacteristics.
4. If it is hazardous, refer to parts 261, 264, 265, 266, 268,& 270 for possible exclusions.
5. Determine if waste is a special waste as designated by the statein appendix XI of 261.
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Excluded wastes
Domestic sewage.
Secondary materials that have been reclaimed & returned tooriginal process.
Certain wood preserving solutions.
Listed Wastes Hazardous wastes from non-specific sources.
Example: Spent solvents, wastewater treatment sludge from platingoperations. Hazardous wastes from non-specific listed sources areF-listed.
Hazardous waste from specific sources. Example:Pink/red water fromTNT operations(K047), or Emission control dust /sludge from theprimary production of steel in electric furnaces(K061). Hazardouswastes from specific sources are K- listed.
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Listed wastes(continued) Discarded commercial chemical products,off- specification species, container residues, and spill residuesthereof.
Examples: A container of Dimethoate (P044)that has exceeded shelflife or a drum of copper cyanide (P029) that you no longer intendto use. These types of waste are P-listed.
Listed toxic wastes.
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EPA flowchart for definition of a solid waste
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EPA flowchart for definition of a solid waste
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Sources and Generated of Hazardous Wastes
• In the process of producing goods and services, we also generatewastes, and in many cases these wastes are hazardous.
• The major industries that generate hazardous wastes in developedcountries include:
A. Petrochemical industry: Phenols, metals, acids, caustics andorganic compounds
B. Metal Industry: Heavy metals, fluorides, cyanide, acidsalkali
C. Leather industry: Heavy metals and sulfides
Philosophy and Approaches to Hazardous Waste
University of Jordan
2/9/2011 Dr. Mustafa Al Kuisi 2
• The philosophy and approach to management of solid and hazardouswaste have undergone many changes overtime.
• These changes reflect the level of industrialization, societalattitudes, and population trends.
• Dilute and disperse philosophy…. During the first century(1760-1860)
• Concentrate and contain…….Industrial revelation ….During thesecond century.
• During the 1970s and early 1980s …… conservation and recyclingphilosophy.
• The amount of hazardous waste generated has gone up over theyears, and its toxicity has attained high levels.
• The current emphasis is on pollution prevention.
• Pollution prevention: any practice that results in the reductionor elimination of any pollutant prior to recycling, treatment ordisposal.
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Chemical of concerns to the EPA (1991)
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Integrated Waste Management • Is the current waste managementphilosophy and incorporates various options available for effectivemanagement of hazardous waste.
• It include the following components: – Source reduction, includeelimination and substitution of toxic materials at the source
– Recycling, includes recovery, reuse and treatment
– Residual disposal, component of the waste stream left afterrecycling, which has to be disposed
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• The following represent the preferred order, based on thepotential impact on the environment from a particular method ofdisposal:
Pollution Prevention Highest Priority Recycling Treatment DisposalLowest Priority • There is differences between entire manufacturingprocess and the end of the pipeline approach.
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• The difference between the two is that an integrated philosophyallows for elimination, substitution and reduction of hazardousmaterials at various stages of the manufacturing process, while theend of the pipeline approach is devoid of these options and offerno choice other than to accept and manage the waste that isgenerated as a result of the process.
• Integrated waste management involves : – Identified which step ofthe process generate
hazardous waste – Exploring ways to eliminate or minimize thewaste
2/9/2011 Dr. Mustafa Al Kuisi 8
Incentives for Waste Reduction • Federal law requires allgenerators of
hazardous waste to implement methods to reduce or eliminatehazardous waste.
• In addition to the legal requirements, there are many reasons whya manufacturer should seek to minimize waste generation.
• These incentives could be grouped under: – Economic – Regulatory– Liability – Public relations
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Economic Incentives
• Economic Incentives include: 1. Tax breaks 2. Savings on cost ofland disposal 3. Avoiding expensive alternative treatment 4. Savingin cost of raw materials 5. Manufacturing cost savings • $5 to$100/ton • Hazardous waste more than $250/ton • Incineration isbetween $500 and $1500/ton
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Regulatory Incentives • Resource Conservation and RecoveryAct
(RCRA) and other waste management acts require the generators ofhazardous wastes to establish certification and reportingprograms.
• By adopting a waste minimization policy, the generator fulfillsthese legal requirements.
• Another legal requirements is certification by the generator, onthe hazardous waste manifest, that a waste minimization program inplace.
• Another regulatory measure includes: – Biennial wasteminimization program reporting – Stricter permitting requirementsfor waste handling
and treatment – Land disposal restriction and bans
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• Potential reduction in the generator’s liability forenvironmental problems at both on site and off site treatment,storage and disposal facilities is anther powerful incentive forpollution prevention.
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Public Image and Environmental Concern
• Administrative incentives for pollution prevention result in abetter public image of the company
• These incentives well accepted by employees, resulting inincreased productivity.
• Finally these incentives enable the company to project a positiveexpression on its concern for the environment.
2/9/2011 Dr. Mustafa Al Kuisi 14
Waste Minimization Techniques
Chapter 4-1 Philosophy and Approaches to Hazardous WasteManagement

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